For this project, you will be exploring Cosmology from a historical perspective to compare past…
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Step 1: Above are three images of Jupiter in three different epochs (times). Let’s count the number of storms in each image (oval shaped) and see if there is much difference over the 30 years.
Step 2: Now, check the average sizes of the storms. Measure the disk of Jupiter in cm and enter in the measurement in cm under “D (cm)” in the Excel doc “Project 1”, “Table 1.” Then measure 5 storms in cm (longest distance and shortest distance across the storms) and enter the long measurements under “A (cm)” and the short measurement under “B (cm)” in “Project 1”, “Table 1” for each of the three images. Input those values into your excel Table 1 Lab 8 – Jupiter.xlsx
Regarding the first question, how many storms did you count in each image? How different were your results? Did Jupiter REALLY change how many storms there were over the three images? Yes, you might find you count 15 in 1979 (just making that number up) and 17 in 2010, but how different are those numbers? Is that enough to confidently say that they changed? Think about this question, are you sure you even counted all of the storms? Or maybe you counted a fuzzy one that looked kinda like a storm? How well do you trust those numbers?
Typically in surveys, we take the uncertainty (how much we trust the data) to be the square root of the number. So for my made-up number of 15, that is really 15 + or – square root of 15 => 15 +/- 4. This means the real number of storms is PROBABLY between 11 and 19. For the 2010 number, it would be 17 +/- 4, or a number between 13 and 21. Now, the question we really need to ask, do those ranges overlap? Clearly they do, and we would say ‘no, there has been no measurable change in the frequency of storms’. So, what were your ranges?
For the second question, Table 2 auto-calculates the relative sizes of the storms as compared to Jupiter and Table 3 averages the values and finds the standard deviation – this is basically the uncertainty in the range. So, if we average a random set of 5 storms relative sizes for each of the three images, what do you find? Are they very different? If we assume that the standard deviation provides the range, do they overlap?